Ovarian cysts are very common in women of all ages. Majority of the cysts are benign but a few turn out to be malignant. Patients with ovarian cysts may present with pelvic pain, discomfort or is some cases may not have any symptoms at all.
Investigations include tumour markers and additional scans (MRI or CT) if required to ascertain if they are benign.
Most simple cysts resolve on their own with conservative management.
Surgery for cysts is indicated in the following circumstances:
- If the cyst is causing symptoms
- If the cyst has not resolved or has increased in size on a repeat scan
- If there is any suspicion of malignancy
Types of surgery
There are mainly two types of surgery for ovarian cysts and most often it is done laparoscopically, (minimally invasive surgery performed through a small incision) unless the cyst is too big or there are other concerns.
- Cystectomy – where the cyst is removed and the ovary is conserved
- Oophorectomy – where the entire ovary and tube along with the cyst is removed.